色情,大我藝術與鏡像神經元

​英文作者:約翰 ·  摩根

​欲讀懂中文和大我藝術先要讀懂英文部分

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I, 《世界的起源/L'Origine du monde》,法国著名现实主义绘画大师古斯塔夫 · 库尔贝于1866年创作的现实主义油画,

藏于法国的巴黎奥赛美术馆

II,色情与镜像神经元的链接

​III,张大我《生命玄线》系列之一

​(大我艺术,请点击这里

The cells that "shaped civilization"

A discovery that

"will do for psychology what DNA did for biology"

"The tiny miracles that get us through the day

that "bind us with each other mentally and emotionally"

神經元~“塑造文明”的細胞

我們發現:“猶如DNA為生物學所做的貢獻一樣,神經元將為心理學做出巨大貢獻。“

“讓我們在一天中,享受這小小的奇蹟

那就是:在精神和情感上將我們彼此聯繫在一起。”

"The mirror neuron interprets all artistic aesthetics/perspectives,

and art subverts all aesthetic standards in art."

"The mirror neuron interprets artistic perspectives, and art subverts aesthetic standards in art."

”神經元诠释一切艺术美学,艺术颠覆一切美学标准“ ~约翰 · 摩根

(说明:英文撰写,后译为中文,中文翻译保留英文文法,以便以英文的思维来阅读中文文字,不求此文向大众公开传播)

什么是镜像神经元?

What is Mirrrio Neurons?

1992年,人类在大脑中的前运动皮层,辅助运动区域,初级体感皮层和下顶叶皮层中发现了镜像神经元。

In humans, brain activity consistent with that of mirror neurons has been found in the premotor cortex, the supplementary motor area, the primary somatosensory cortex, and the inferior parietal cortex.

​其作用:

镜像神经元理论认为脑神经元与同情心有密切关联,认为这些脑细胞在人类“视网膜所获取的信息”和语言中作用巨大,起着关键性作用和发挥着巨大的超强能力......更多体现在模仿(mimic)和匹配外界情绪(match moods),以通过面部表情和行为作实施传递,表现为同理心,模仿心的各种行为。

The mirror neurons theory suggests neurons might be involved in feelings of empathy, while others think these brain cells play critical roles in human abilities like speech. We tend to mimic and match moods, facial expressions, and behavior as empathy.

关键词:

  • 镜像神经系统(mirror neuron system)

  • 同理性(empathy)

  • 模仿(mimicry)

  • 沟通(connection)

  • ​色情(porn)

美国色情产业之大,非人们所预料。每年,美国人大约要花费40亿美元用于视频色情,这使得该行业比赫赫有名的NFL.,和NBA还要巨大,包括家喻户晓的美国棒球大联盟。当人们在有线卫星电视,电话性爱和色情杂志,以及互联色情网络按次付费时,色情业务估计每年总计在200亿美元到240亿美元之间,此乃惊人的数字,连全球制药行业的龙头老大年销售额也不过最多130亿美元。正如弗兰克里奇教授所指出的那样,“人们一年在美国色情网站上花掉的钱远比在电影票上花的钱多,也超过了在所有表演艺术上的花费。”美国国家数据局统计,性网站占所有互联网流量的百分之四十八。

Porn is a big business. Every year, Americans spend $4 billion on video pornography, which makes the industry larger than the N.F.L., the N.B.A. or Major League Baseball. When you include Internet Web sites, porn networks and pay-per-view movies on cable and satellite, phone sex, and magazines, the porn business is estimated to total between $10 billion and $14 billion annually. As Frank Rich notes, "People spend more money for pornography in America in a year than they do on movie tickets, more than they do on all the performing arts combined." Sex sites are estimated to account for up to forty-eight percent of all Internet traffic.

科学家认为,色情确实通过镜像神经元释放来刺激多巴胺的产生,但与阿片类药物和巧克力的方式大不相同。这种差异改变了我们必须采取理解和接触色情为一种习惯的生活方式。它也是缓解和治疗抑郁最好方式之一。此乃后现代主义解放了人们的思想,对于不乐意接受这种生活习惯的人群,与其文化信仰或保守思想有关。但是科学仅仅关心的是确定性概念,或者基于数据(data),而不像诗人,抽象画画家,哲学家那样的自由旅行各自的思想,有时候,这些人文主义者就像一群加拿大野鹅一样漫无方向,但科学家不求模糊或模棱两可的概念。

Porn does stimulate the production of dopamine, but in a much different way than opioids and chocolate. This difference changes the way we must approach kicking this habit. It reduces and benifits depression. The idea of post-modernism librate us from traditional way particularly, in some degree of religous way. If this habit does not work for you, it may be of your religous believe or of their conservitive lifestyle. Neuronists believe in data, accurate figures, poets, abstract artists, philosiphers are romantic travellers, they can make their own journeys fun like wild goose chase. 

Porn and Mirror Neurons

  • JOHN MORGAN

Curator|Professor of Chinese language and culture...

 

Narrator:

I was a teen when my mother and I accidentally watched a low-grade porn movie together. I remember stiffening and freezing and I think my mother blurted something to ease the situation.

I am sure many of you connect with similar situations.

No, this is not about social debate on porn or sex for that matter – whether it is sexual freedom, individual preference or a moral issue.

This is about the neurology of watching porn.

Going back to the initial anecdote, why did I freeze? I wasn’t doing the deed; somebody on the screen was doing it. So why was I feeling as if I had done something wrong?

An easy explanation would be socialization and taboo around sex.

Let us look at it from a neurological point of view.

Research finds that when a person views a porn image/movie, the mirror neurons are activated. Mirror neuron system is an important evolutionary component of Theory of Mind which is the ability of humans to read the other person (their beliefs, intent, motivation and action). There is a body of research on just mirror neuron system which provides a fascinating insight on how we work socially.

Here is what happens during porn viewing. In a process akin to synesthesia, visual sensory inputs are converted into motor neuron activity through the mirror neuron system (Refer to V.S. Ramachandran’s work on synesthesia as well as mirror neurons). The person feels s/he is the subject doing the deed.

[In NLP terminology, the word "association" is often used. Neurologically, association is that sense you are the subject doing the action (verb) in relation to an object. You are associated either if you are actually doing the action or your mirror-neurons have activated and the subject-ownership has occurred.]

This association doesn’t happen always. For example, if you are eating my favourite chocolate, I might start salivating and desiring to procure a chocolate, but there is a null signal that alerts me that you are eating that piece of chocolate, not I.

However, due to both the powerful ancient biological pull, the need to activate the excitatory pleasure system, the guaranteed dopamine-induced reward at the end of the process, the association into porn is high. One does not get, what Norman Doidge refers to as the satisfaction coming from actually having sex. Sex releases endorphins and gives “peaceful euphoric bliss.” On the other hand, in porn viewing, the person stays on the excitatory pleasure loop.

Significantly, it is found brain maps change with frequent viewing of porn (read Norman Doidge’s work as well as William Struther’s book. Ignore the Christian underpinnings and moralising in Struther’s work and focus on the brain maps). The process for the layperson is as below: In a porn, specific visual and auditory sensory inputs are provided in a story format. This once processed, pulls in other memories, moves through pleasure and reward centre and becomes the chocolate you crave for. 

The dynamics of actually having sex which includes many unpredictable visual, auditory and kinesthetic inputs, besides the interaction of memories to the new inputs requires brain to use many of its parts to achieve the satisfaction.

By removing the interpersonal dynamics and instead installed with ready-made circuit of pleasure, the ability of person to enjoy sex in other ways decreases. The person recreates it in actual encounters and demands the partner offer it as per the existing script (what is known as porn sex). There is also a desire for the partner to fit in with the porn image (Can you sense the connection of body image and sex?).

Porn is a loaded word; it automatically invokes social histories of meaning. Let us drop this word.

Instead, let us reflect on how some of us binge-view certain romantic movies.

The person connects with a character and the mirror-neuron system is activated. Thereafter depending on how well the story is told, the viewer experiences the movie as a personal journey. When the said character is able to partner up and live happily ever after, a neurological script is also prepared. What kind of partner will be satisfying? What should happen for that moment to arrive? What is it to be desired?

When the current relationship fails to give the same bursts of pleasure, the person is left unsatisfied.

 

Let us move to violent movies/animations and video-games. There have been many studies done on whether viewing violent movies/animation or playing video games increase proclivity to violence in the viewer/player. These research studies have differed and are inconclusive. Some studies argue it provides cathartic release in the subject and hence decrease possibility of violence in real life. A recent neuroscience research showed that playing violent games did not increase violent behavior nor decrease empathy.

Here is the thing – empathy is built on mirror neuron system. 

Playing the video games is also built, to an extent, on the same mirror neuron system. The player associates him/herself into game (becomes the doer of actions). Logically, the process sharpens the system. 

(There are issues like mirror neurons usually activate to animate beings, not things; how does brain differentiate imagination and reality; the fact the player actually has control on the game)

I think the process could be studied differently -- research how playing violent games normalizes violence or not. Once brain has experienced killing/blowing a person, logically a neural circuitry is laid out. It has been done once. 

The number of men who attempt or complete suicide is higher than women worldwide. What is more important to note is that men often choose more violent methods for suicide than women. And those who have been in professions or social environment that involved violence are more likely to take their lives. Violence is normalized in their lives.

I squeam around violence in movies. I cry, shudder and in one case, I threw up. Recently, I decided to work on it by viewing plenty of violent movies. I succeeded by focusing on technical details – what make up does a thumb need as it is being sliced, what kind of lighting, setting and how did they create it, sound effects, and how does camera pan to establish the severing of thumb did happen. I began to appreciate the meticulous work and artistry behind such movies (my belief that some violent scenes are stupid remains).

Consider now, that you are therapist/counselor/coach and your client is seated before you, telling you his/her issues. If your mirror neurons are activated, you associate and become the subject of your client’s story, invoking memories of similar situations, can you think resourcefully to help him/her to move/free/unstuck from situation?

This is why quality NLP trainers insist on focusing on structure, not on content

Focus on their eye movements, face, gestures, physiology (what in NLP is called sensory acuity) and the language (exact words aka the NLP Metamodel, sequence of words, metaphors, silence, vocal intonations). 

Your job is not to make them feel good or feel bad for their suffering; it is to help them move out of their stuck situation.

Use all parts of your brain resourcefully. weaveyourlights :-)

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这是人脑在观看色情片时部分微观数据图。小球状束或“体细胞”,是通过细长线或“树突”连接在一起。这些微小的电路在我们的大脑中传输和存储化学信息,其新兴属性被称为心灵或意识或不朽的灵魂。(if you're really superstitious)

你看到非常精细的发线,实际上是一个正在制作或运行的神经元。由麦吉尔大学和蒙特利尔神经学研究所(McGill University and the Montreal Neurological Institute )领导的研究小组首次成功地在神经元之间建立了新的功能连接。除了这些人工神经元的生长速度比神经元自然生长快60倍之外,它们与我们体内自然生长的神经元无法区分。

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Lifelines for Archetype - “生命玄线” - 张大我

​大我艺术给我带来了惊喜,其在精神上与情感上把我们与神经元美学连接在一起,观者与艺术作品点燃一种火种,大我的每一幅作品几乎接近神经学显微镜下程序处理的影像,例如:亨丁顿舞蹈症脑图(Huntington's Disease, HD)。

 

这里是从旁观者分享理论(beholder's share)角度对大我艺术的认知;不过,神经学家对此的感知远远胜过一个普通旁观者的感知。大我的艺术语言似乎在讲述着每个镜像神经学家的潜意识思维。

 

我们来探索艺术与科学的比较,不但可以开阔科学家的思维局限,更重要的是希望能开阔绘画领域中那些具有“成见威胁”(stereotype threat )的画家们的认知度,因为他通常总习惯说一句话:你的画看上去像毕加索的画,这类感知说不清楚是褒义还是贬义,此类感知的问题在于,一种狭义的认知会进入一种“成见威胁”情境之中,这是十分危险的。

 

请注意,感知是心理学词语,即:perceive。

The tiny miracles of DAWO ART that get us through the day that "bind us with each other mentally and emotionally.

“HO, OH, NH2DOPAMINE/C8 H11 NO2”-“生命玄线”一种科学诠释

“HO, OH, NH2DOPAMINE/C8 H11 NO2”, 此化学式是我对“生命玄线”的科学诠释~启发于“色情与神经元“一文,感知“生命玄线”的科学色彩。

奥地利艺术史家Alois Riegl (1858-1905)曾经说:“如果没有旁观者的参与,艺术作品乃非完整的作品。“ 这幅作品为张大我作,中国当代水墨艺术的奠基人。美国神经科学家罗伯特指出:“对于心理学家和脑神经学家来说,事实上,这幅作品是一幅完全接近于神经学对性与神经元系统的实验示意图”。

 

C8H11NO2即:多巴胺(dopamine)的化学式,是一种脑内分泌物,属于神经递质,可影响一个人的情绪。多巴胺为脑内信息传递者的角色。

在大脑中多巴胺作为传导神经递质,通过神经元释放一种化学物质将信号发送到其它神经细胞。大脑包括几个不同的多巴胺途径,其中一个起着奖励–激励行为的主要作用。大多数类型的奖励增加多巴胺在脑中的浓度,大部分成瘾药物增加多巴胺神经元活动。其他的脑多巴胺用来参与运动控制和控制各种激素的释放。

 

这种传导物质主要负责大脑的情欲,感觉,传递兴奋及开心的信息。与上瘾有关。

 

爱情的感觉对应到生化层次,和脑里产生大量多巴胺起的作用有关。

 

例如:吸烟和吸毒都可以增加多巴胺的分泌,使上瘾者感到开心及兴奋。多巴胺传递开心、兴奋情绪的这功能,医学上被用来治疗抑郁症

一位美國鋼琴家,Jade说:我爱那个男人,单独和他在一起时,我感到十分快乐,犹如我看着这幅画,分开时,家务事繁杂时,令我无法回到和他在一起的快乐日子,但是,这幅画作令我快乐!

神经科学家對這段话提出了建议:她最需要的是努力并有计划把家务事与爱她的男人区别开来,适当享受她难得的经历,这会使得她的抑郁症得到缓解以至于消失。或者,把自己沉浸在以上艺术作品中,冥想她有过的美好时刻,其多巴胺的分泌会慢慢旺盛起来......缓解抑郁,对艺术作品的观赏和回忆美好过去是刺激多巴胺分泌物增多的最佳方法之一。

 

享受多巴胺分泌的另一种方法是:享受一顿美餐;也有极端情形如亨丁顿舞蹈症,是多巴胺分泌过多而导致的疾病。

享受多巴胺分泌的另一种方法是:MACA、YOHIMBE、小分子肽产品、女性ARGIN MAX等OCT (Over the counter)以及如新产品(NuSkin)以及巧克力等。

HO, OH, NH2(化学式):

一种快乐荷尔蒙/尊重素(Serotonin, the happiness hormone)- 见下图

5-羟色胺(Serotonin, “尊重素”)= HO, OH, NH2

每个人都需要被尊重,当人感到被尊重时,会分泌5-羟色胺。

当人感到不被尊重时,5-羟色胺(HO, OH, NH2)就会降低。所以当我们感到不被尊重时,会非常不爽。

Small-Chemistry-Molecule-Equation-Tattoo

Small Chemistry Molecule Equation Tattoo On Wrist/快乐神经元与化学式科普纹身艺术

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科学与艺术~神经元与快乐荷尔蒙(HO, OH, NH2)作为绘画语言的艺术品(美国艺术家)

大脑图比较
大脑图比较

左:正常情形大脑 右:连接色情大脑

神经元-多巴胺
神经元-多巴胺

浪漫图示-神经元-多巴胺
浪漫图示-神经元-多巴胺

大脑图比较
大脑图比较

左:正常情形大脑 右:连接色情大脑

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科学与艺术~神经元与艺术/实验室大脑图示

Mirror Neurons Painting by Pawel Zakrzew

科学与艺术~神经元与绘画语言对神经元的表诉(丹麦艺术家)

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JOHN MORGAN(约翰 · 摩根)

傳播正能量
Give This World Good Energy
- 约翰 · 摩根

约翰 · 摩根简历

BIO, JOHN MORGAN (Weihong Yan)

  • 美中教育、中国文化海外本土化及高级商业咨询顾问。
  • 现任美国世界中国学研究学会首席执行官;休 • 麦考(银行家,美国银行行长)当代艺术中心国际委员会主席,美国高等教育禅学会会员和北京外国语大学中国文化研究院研究员。

  • 2006~2017年,美国北卡州费佛尔大学文学院教授、中国学研究中心主任、第46所(现112所)孔子学院美方院长。

  • 艺术评论人、策展人。

  • ​多语种翻译。

研究方向:

  • 中国文化国际传播学、中西美学与跨文化比较研究与推广。

  • 汉字书法文化与美国STEM/STEAM教育研究。(Science科学、Technology技术、Engineering工程、Art艺术和Mathematic数学)

  • 汉字书法文化与脑可塑性研究。

譯著:

  • 《說文解字》540部首,德文和英文翻譯。

  • 英文翻譯漢字講述的文明脈絡》2014年中國最美的書。

John Morgan (Weihong Yan),

American curator, author, US-China strategist in education, culture and Business Senior Consultant and strategic specialist and research professor of Chinese studies in Beijing Foreign Studies University, China. He is also the CEO of the World Association Chinese Studies.

Academic:

1. International relations focus on Chinese studies.

2. Chinese and Western aesthetics and cross-cultural research.

​3. Interdisciplinary studies of Chinese calligraphy and neuroplasticity. 

-----------------------------------------------------

Contact Info:

Weihong Yan

y.weihong@gmail.com

86-13903511910 (China)

001-980-428-0550 (USA) 

Add: 16747 Crosshaven Dr. Charlotte, NC 28278, USA.